For years, studies have found that first-generation college students-those
who do not have a parent with a college degree-lag other students on a range of
education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates
are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if
they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for
decades to recruit more of them. This has created “a paradox” in that recruiting
first-generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that
higher education has “continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close”
achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of
a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Sciense.
But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential
solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach(which involves a one-hour,
next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap(measured by
such factors as grades)between first-generation and other students.
The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findins
are based on a study involving 147 students(who completed the project)at an
unnamed private unive rsity.First generation was defined as not having a parent
with a fou r-year college degree Most of the first-generation students(59.1
percent) were recipients of Pell Grants，a federal g rant for undergraduates with
financial need，while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at
least one parent with a four-year degree
Their thesis-that a relatively modest inte rvention could have a big
impact-was based on the view that first-gene ration students may be most lacking
not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues
that face most college students They cite past resea rch by several authors to
show that this is the gap that must be na rrowed to close the achievement
Many first-gene ration students”struggle to navigate the middle-class
culture of higher education，learn the’rules of the game，’and take advantage of
college resou rces,” they write And this becomes more of a problem when collages
don’t talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of
students Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social
class can affect students’ educational expe rience，many first-gene ration
students lack sight about why they a re struggling and do not unde rstand how
students’ like them can improve
26. Recruiting more first-generation students has
[A]reduced their d ropout rates
[B]narrowed the achievement gao
[C] missed its original pu rpose
[D]depressed college students
27 The author of the research article are optimistic because
[A]the problem is solvable
[B]their approach is costless
[q the recruiting rate has increased
[D]their finding appeal to students
28 The study suggests that most first-gene ration students
[A]study at private universities
[B]are from single-pa rent families
[q are in need of financial support
[D]have failed their collage
29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students
[A]a re actually indifferent to the achievement gap
[B]can have a potential influence on othe r students
[C] may lack opportunities to apply for resea rch projects
[D]are inexperienced in handling their issues at college
30.We mayinfer from the last paragraph that–
[A]universities often r~ect the culture of the middle-class
[B]students are usually to blame for their lack of resources
[C]social class g reatly helps en rich educational experiences
[D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question
26.C missed its original purpose
27.A the problem is solvable
28.C are in need of financial support
29.D are inexperienced in handling issues at college
30.D colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question
While fossil fuels—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy
supply, it’s clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such
as wind and solar. The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the
world: They now account for more than half of new power sources going on
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted
businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about
the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar. The cost of
solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to
one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy
source. In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to
power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably
China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March,
for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of
the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to
economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an
unreliable energy source. But that message did not play well with many in Iowa,
where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s
electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted
by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question “What happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t
shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage
capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the
clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big
bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a
rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in
While there’s a long way to go, the trend lines for renewables are spiking.
The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in
time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change. What Washington
does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a
time of a global shift in thought.
26. The word “plummeting”(Line 3, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to .
27. According to Paragraph 3, the use of renewable energy in America .
[A] is progressing notably
[B] is as extensive as in Europe
[C] faces many challenges
[D] has proved to be impractical
28. It can be learned that in Iowa, .
[A] wind is a widely used energy source
[B] wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
[C] tech giants are investing in clean energy
[D] there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29. Which of the following is true about clean energy according to
[A] Its application has boosted battery storage.
[B] It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
[C] Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
[D] Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable
[A] will bring the USA closer to other countries.
[B] will accelerate global environmental change.
[C] is not really encouraged by the USA government.
[D] is not competitive enough with regard to its cost.
A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic inclued settlers and
sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the
United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people
arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian
immigrants, for exanmle, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an
affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.
Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide nemcomers into
two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the
making, or our broken immigrantion system and the long political paralysis over
how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we
think about categories. We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and
illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and
thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration
Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers,
home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They
are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money
and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can
manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.
With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and
identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where
they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying
forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they
can belong to two nations honorably.
Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes
on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of
right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that
managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes.
Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing
26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____
[A] immigrate across the Atlantic.
[B] leave their home countries for good.
[C] stay in a foregin temporaily.
[D] find permanent jobs overseas.
27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration stystem in the
[A] needs new immigrant categories.
[B] has loosened control over immigrants.
[C] should be adopted to meet challenges.
[D] has been fixeed via political means.
28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___
[A] fiancial incentives.
[B] a global recognition.
[C] opportunities to get regular jobs.
[D] the freedom to stay and leave.
29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated
[A] as faithful partners.
[B] with economic favors.
[C] with regal tolerance.
[D] as mighty rivals.
[A] come and go: big mistake.
[B] living and thriving : great risk.
[C] with or without : great risk.
[D] legal or illegal: big mistake.
An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research
says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a
deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number
of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average
effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate
ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on
well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations.
We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to
boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying
into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate
their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original
photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered
to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an
automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or
no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely
flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they
looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there
any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants
who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to
make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images
higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those
who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the
findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley.
“It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If
you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s
study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves
Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as
themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can
share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty,
intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says
catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized
version of themselves.
26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that
[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high
[B] illusory superiority is baseless effect
[C] our need for leadership is unnatural
[D] self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s______
[A] rapid watching
[B] conscious choice
[C] intuitive response
[D] automatic self-defence
28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to______
[A] underestimate their insecurities
[B] believe in their attractiveness
[C] cover up their depressions
[D] oversimplify their illusions
29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to_____.
30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because
people can _____.
[A]present their dishonest profiles
[B]define their traditional life styles
[C]share their intellectual pursuits
[D]withhold their unflattering sides