英语一阅读理解考研真题

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英语一阅读理解考研真题

英语一阅读理解考研真题1

Text 2

A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young
Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is
that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other
source, Not a president’s social media platform.

Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as
distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their
media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016
presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users
in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the
University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent
of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at
separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group
survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust”
to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different
perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people
assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and
actively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.

Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in
Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political
engagement.

Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and
immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their
values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in
passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason
given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than
made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem
of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via
social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be
the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility
in counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna
Group.

So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they
reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to
share on social media.

26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts
on

[A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.

[B] people’s preference for social media platforms.

[C] the administrations ability to handle information.

[D] social media was a reliable source of news.

27. The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to

[A] sharpen

[B] define

[C] boast

[D] share

28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people

[A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

[B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.

[C] have s strong sense of responsibility.

[D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem
is

[A] readers outdated values.

[B] journalists’ biased reporting

[C] readers’ misinterpretation

[D] journalists’ made-up stories.

30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

[B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

[C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

[D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.

英语一阅读理解考研真题2

TEXT 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme
Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone
without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling,
particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search
through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the
state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing
technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice.
Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice
can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring
the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is
similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police
don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or
pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is
more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s
reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of
recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made
that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New,
disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s
protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and
accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment
of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had
to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then;
they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information
now.

26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is
legitimate to

[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] tolerance.

[B] indifference.

[C] disapproval.

[D] cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable
to

[A] getting into one’s residence.

[B] handing one’s historical records.

[C] scanning one’s correspondences.

[D] going through one’s wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.

30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

英语一阅读理解考研真题3

Text 2

When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his
explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the
usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my
goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my
decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with
the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman
on September 29.

McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on
what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the
outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn‘t alone. In recent weeks the
No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they
were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response
to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move
on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of
letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.

As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be
more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover
was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had,
according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will
abound for aspiring leaders.

The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is
unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule
that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says
Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:“I can‘t think of a single search I’ve
done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”

Those who jumped without a job haven‘t always landed in top positions
quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted
to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based
commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to
be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years
later.

Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The
financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a
bad one. “The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay where you are, but that’s
been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who‘ve been hurt
the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”

26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as
being

[A]arrogant.

[B]frank.

[C]self-centered.

[D]impulsive.

27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred
by

[A]their expectation of better financial status.

[B]their need to reflect on their private life.

[C]their strained relations with the boards.

[D]their pursuit of new career goals.

28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means

[A]approved of.

[B]attended to.

[C]hunted for.

[D]guarded against.

29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A]top performers used to cling to their posts.

[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.

[C]top performers care more about reputations.

[D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules.

30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

[A]CEOs: Where to Go?

[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?

[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net

[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers

英语一阅读理解考研真题4

Text 2

An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the
trouble is, no one knows which half . In the internet age, at least in theory
,this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click
on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to
buy.

In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to
advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that
people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have
explicit permission?

In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding
a “do not track “(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell
adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft’s Internet Explorer
and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT ;Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In
February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry
would get cracking on responging to DNT requests.

On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer
10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does
not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do
so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether
they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and
press on anyway.

Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad
business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still
working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on
default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point
for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably
with Google’s on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft’s chief privacy
officer, bloggde:”we believe consumers should have more control.” Could it
really be that simple?

26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers
to:

[A] ease competition among themselves

[B] lower their operational costs

[C] avoid complaints from consumers

[D] provide better online services

27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:

[A] online advertisers

[B] e-commerce conductors

[C] digital information analysis

[D] internet browser developers

28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

[A] many cut the number of junk ads

[B] fails to affect the ad industry

[C] will not benefit consumers

[D] goes against human nature

29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph.6?

[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose

[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT

[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers

[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads

30. The author’s attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is
one of:

[A] indulgence

[B] understanding

[C] appreciaction

[D] skepticism

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