Text 2

A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young
Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is
that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other
source, Not a president’s social media platform.

Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as
distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their
media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016
presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users
in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the
University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent
of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at
separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group
survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust”
to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different
perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people
assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and
actively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.

Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in
Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political

Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and
immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their
values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in
passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason
given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than
made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem
of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via
social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be
the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility
in counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna

So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they
reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to
share on social media.

26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts

[A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.

[B] people’s preference for social media platforms.

[C] the administrations ability to handle information.

[D] social media was a reliable source of news.

27. The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to

[A] sharpen

[B] define

[C] boast

[D] share

28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people

[A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

[B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.

[C] have s strong sense of responsibility.

[D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem

[A] readers outdated values.

[B] journalists’ biased reporting

[C] readers’ misinterpretation

[D] journalists’ made-up stories.

30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

[B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

[C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

[D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.


Text 2

When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his
explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the
usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my
goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my
decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with
the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman
on September 29.

McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on
what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the
outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn‘t alone. In recent weeks the
No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they
were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response
to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move
on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of
letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.

As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be
more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover
was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had,
according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will
abound for aspiring leaders.

The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is
unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule
that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says
Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:“I can‘t think of a single search I’ve
done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”

Those who jumped without a job haven‘t always landed in top positions
quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted
to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based
commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to
be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years

Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The
financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a
bad one. “The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay where you are, but that’s
been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who‘ve been hurt
the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”

26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as





27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred

[A]their expectation of better financial status.

[B]their need to reflect on their private life.

[C]their strained relations with the boards.

[D]their pursuit of new career goals.

28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means

[A]approved of.

[B]attended to.

[C]hunted for.

[D]guarded against.

29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A]top performers used to cling to their posts.

[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.

[C]top performers care more about reputations.

[D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules.

30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

[A]CEOs: Where to Go?

[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?

[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net

[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers


Text 2

An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the
trouble is, no one knows which half . In the internet age, at least in theory
,this fraction can be much reduced . By watching what people search for, click
on and say online, companies can aim “behavioural” ads at those most likely to

In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to
advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that
people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have
explicit permission?

In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Cornmission (FTC) proposed adding
a “do not track “(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell
adwertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft’s Internet Explorer
and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT ;Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In
February the FTC and Digltal Adwertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry
would get cracking on responging to DNT requests.

On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer
10,the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default.

It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Geting a DNT signal does
not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do
so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether
they are sticking with Microsoft’s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and
press on anyway.

Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. Atter all, it has an ad
business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still
working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on
default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point
for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably
with Google’s on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft’s chief privacy
officer, bloggde:”we believe consumers should have more control.” Could it
really be that simple?

26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that “behavioural” ads help advertisers

[A] ease competition among themselves

[B] lower their operational costs

[C] avoid complaints from consumers

[D] provide better online services

27. “The industry” (Line 6,Para.3) refers to:

[A] online advertisers

[B] e-commerce conductors

[C] digital information analysis

[D] internet browser developers

28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default

[A] many cut the number of junk ads

[B] fails to affect the ad industry

[C] will not benefit consumers

[D] goes against human nature

29. which of the following is ture according to Paragraph.6?

[A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose

[B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT

[C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers

[D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads

30. The author’s attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is
one of:

[A] indulgence

[B] understanding

[C] appreciaction

[D] skepticism


Text 2

All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of
any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are
few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.

During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in
America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full
of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law
graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of
nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.

There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal
education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a
four-year undergraduate degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the
American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This
leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of
undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely

Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible
ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern
the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to
allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students
sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a
stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be
allowed to do so.Students who do not need the extra training could cut their
debt mountain by a third.The other reason why costs are so high is the
restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the
District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This
keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within
the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping
outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money
rather than serve clients ethically.

In fact,allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs
and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology
and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency.
After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started
liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.

26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to

[A]the growing demand from clients.

[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.

[C]the prospect of working in big firms.

[D]the attraction of financial rewards.

27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most
American states?

[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.

[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.

[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.

[D]Receiving training by professional associations.

28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from

[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.

[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.

[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.

[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.

29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly
because it

[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.

[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.

[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.

[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.

30.In this text, the author mainly discusses

[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.

[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.

[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.

[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.



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