Even in traditional offices,”the lingua franca of corporate America has
gottenmuch more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago,”
said Ha rva rd Business School professor Nancy Koehn She sta rted spinning off
examples.”If you and I pa rachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990,we
would see much less frequent use of terms like Journey, mission,passion. There
were goals,there were strategies,there were objectives,but we didn’t talk about
energy;we didn’t talk about passion.”

Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabula ry is very
“team”-oriented-and not by coincidence.”Let’s not forget sDorts-in
male-dominated corporate America,it’s still a big deal. It’s not explicitly
conscious;it’s the idea that I’m a coach,and you’re my team,and we’re in this
togethec. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companies,but most
think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win”.

These terms a re also intended to infuse work with meaning-and,as Khu rana
points out,increase allegiance to the firm.”You have the importation of
terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit
organizations and religious organizations:Terms like vision,values,passion,and

This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated
amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance The “mommy wars” of the
1990s a re still going on today, prompting arguments about whywomen still
can’thave it all and books like Sheryl Sandberg’s Lean In,whose title has become
abuzzword in its own right. Terms like
unplug,offline,life-hack,bandwidth,andcapacity are all about setting boundaries
between the office and the home But ifyour work is your “passion,” you’II be
more likely to devote yourself to it,even ifthat means going home for dinner and
then working long after the kids are in bed

But this seems to be the irony of office speak:Everyone makes fun of
it,butmanage rs love it,companies depend on it,and regular people willingly
absorb itAs Nunberg said,”You can get people to think it’s nonsense at the same
timethat you buy into it.” In a workplace that’s fundamentally indiffe rent to
your lifeand its meaning office speak can help you figu re out how you relate to
yourwork-and how your work defines who you are

31. According to Nancy Koehn, office language has become________

[A]more e motional

[B]more objective

[C]less energetic

[D]less energetic

[E]less strategic

32.”team”-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to________

[A]historical incidents

[B]gender difference

[C]sports culture

[D]athletic executives

33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to________

[A]revive historical terms

[B]promote company image

[C]foster corporate cooperation

[D]strengthen employee loyalty

34.It can be inferred that Lean In_________

[A]voices for working women

[B]appeals to passionate workaholics

[C]triggers dcbates among mommies

[D]praises motivated employees

35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak?

[A]Managers admire it but avoid it

[B]Linguists believe it to be nonsense

[C]Companies find it to be fundamental

[D]Regular people mock it but accept it


Text 3

That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint
is made especially mournfully: There’s never any time to read.

What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management
techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on
making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times.” But
in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work.
Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or
else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The
modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly
inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is
that one is actually inclined to interruption.” Deep reading requires not just
time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more

In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time
as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any
given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some
goal. Immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk
inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list
item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the
most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an
unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book
Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles
(days, hours, minutes) as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we
will have wasted them.” No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a

So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for
reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact,
Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow”
into “soul time.” You could limit distractions by reading only physical books,
or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can
actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes
the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business,
before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re
“making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything

31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because .

[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind

[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading

[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them

[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed

32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to

[A] update their to-do lists

[B] make passing time fulfilling

[C] carry their plans through

[D] pursue carefree reading

33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps

[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set

[B] develop online reading habits

[C] promote ritualistic reading

[D] achieve immersive reading

34. “Carry a book with you at all times”can work if .

[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day

[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with

[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading

[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business

35. The best title for this text could be .

[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading

[B] How to Find Time to Read

[C] How to Set Reading Goals

[D] How to Read Extensively


Text 3

Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if
we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or
even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses.

Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging
whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very
quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To
accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a
minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of
personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness.

But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the
interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that
viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20
percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We
unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those
impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes
also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long.

Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to
consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good
sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a
moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject
attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or
hire outside screeners.

John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice”
information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced”
long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will
stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer
evaluation; two days, not two seconds.

Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what
differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only
intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12
percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might
change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the
imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed

31. The time needed in making decisions may____.

[A] vary according to the urgency of the situation

[B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction

[C] depend on the importance of the assessment

[D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment

32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snao decisions____.

[A] can be associative

[B] are not unconscious

[C] can be dangerous

[D] are not impulsive

33. Toreverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should____.

[A] trust our first impression

[B] do as people usually do

[C] think before we act

[D] ask for expert advice

34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____.

[A] critical assessment

[B]‘‘thin sliced ’’study

[C] sensible explanation

[D] adequate information

35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____.

[A] tolerant

[B] uncertain

[C] optimistic

[D] doubtful


Text 3

The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid
for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media – such as television commercials
and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit
many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create
“owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers
registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of
factors beyond conventional paid media.

Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own
products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users‘
responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media become another
marketer‘s paid media – for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space
on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so
strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within
that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy,
effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and
hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has
created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and
even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other
marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn
valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may
help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.

The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with
more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that
passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and
much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media:
an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or
activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of
social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply
pressure on the businesses that originally created them.

If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to
boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such
a case, the company‘s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and
the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of
the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and
well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to
engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site

31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are

[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.

[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.

[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.

[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.

32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature

[A] a safe business environment.

[B] random competition.

[C] strong user traffic.

[D] flexibility in organization.

33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media

[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.

[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.

[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.

[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.

34. Toyota Motor‘s experience is cited as an example of

[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.

[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.

[C] cooperating with supportive consumers.

[D] taking advantage of hijacked media.

35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ?

[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.

[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.

[C] Dominance of hijacked media.

[D] Popularity of owned media.



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