Text 1

A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys. People art actually
more stressed at home than at work. Researchers measured people’s cortntlol.
Which is it at stress marker. While they were at work and while they were at
home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge.

“Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as
men have lower levels of stress at work than at home,” writes one of the
researchers. Sarah Damaske, In fact women say they feel better at work. She
notes. “it is men not women. Who report being bappicr at home than at work,”
Another surprise is that the findings hold true for both those with childrcn and
without, but more so for nonparents. This is why pcoplc who work outside the
home have better health.

What the study doesn’t measure is whether people are still doing work when
they’ re at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the
office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women
who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work
outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the
blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the
workplace in making adjustments for working women, it’ s not surprising that
women are more stressed at home.

But it’s not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what
they’re supposed to be doing: working, making money, doing the tasks they have
to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in
hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining

On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the
household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid
out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most
of them. Your home colleagues-your family-have no clear rewards for their labor;
they need to be talked into it, or if they’ re teenagers, threatened with
complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, they’ re your family. You
cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home.

So it’s not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are
the tasks apparently infinite, the co-workers are much harder to motivate.

21.According to Pa ragraph 1,most previous su rveys found that

[A]was an un realistic place for relaxation

[B]generated more stress than the workplace

[C]was an ideal place for stress measurement

[D]offered greater relaxation than the workplace

22.According to Damaske, who are likely to be the happiest at home?

[A]Working mothers

[B]Childless husbands

[C] Childless wives

[D]Working fathers

23 The blurring of working women’s roles refers to the fact

[A]they are both bread winners and housewives

[B]their home is also a place for kicking back

[C]there is often much housework left behind

[D]it is difficult for them to leave their office

24.The word”moola”(Line 4,Para 4)most probably means___________





25.The home front differs from the workplace in that_____________

[A]home is hardly a cozier working environment

[B]division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut

[C]household tasks are generally more motivating

[D]family labor is often adequately rewarded


Text 1

What would you do with 590m? This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie,
an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in
Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she
hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she
could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.

These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the
most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great
wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet
satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was
once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to
spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips,
unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more
valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling
more connected to others.

This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery
winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck.” It seems most people would
be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with
friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average
American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for
it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing
things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed
sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald’s restricts the availability
of its popular McRib – a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into
an object of obsession.

Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about
fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in
wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link
between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and
poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things
for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which
range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American
homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money
well spent。

21.According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most
rewarding purchase?

[A]A big house

[B]A special tour

[C]A stylish car

[D]A rich meal

22.The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is





23.Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that

[A]consumers are sometimes irrational

[B]popularity usually comes after quality

[C]marketing tricks are after effective

[D]rarity generally increases pleasure

24.According to the last paragraph,Happy Money

[A]has left much room for readers’criticism

[B]may prove to be a worthwhile purchase

[C]has predicted a wider income gap in the us

[D]may give its readers a sense of achievement

25.This text mainly discusses how to

[A]balance feeling good and spending money

[B]spend large sums of money won in lotteries

[C]obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent

[D]become more reasonable in spending on luxuries


Text 1

In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson
relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been
automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man
is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”

Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared
making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and
declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both
globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly
than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker.

In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn
an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just
won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so
much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap
robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone
needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand
out in whatever is their field of employment.

Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But
there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in
2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the
gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing
jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared.

There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the
one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the
I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better
education to make themselves above average.

In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need
to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing
some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has
access to poet-high school education.

21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______

[A] the impact of technological advances

[B] the alleviation of job pressure

[C] the shrinkage of textile mills

[D] the decline of middle-class incomes

22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has

[A] work on cheap software

[B] ask for a moderate salary

[C] adopt an average lifestyle

[D] contribute something unique

23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______

[A] gains of technology have been erased

[B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed

[C] factories are making much less money than before

[D] new jobs and services have been offered

24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important

[A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution

[B] to ensure more education for people

[C] ro advance economic globalization

[D] to pass more bills in the 21st century

25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the

[A] New Law Takes Effect

[B] Technology Goes Cheap

[C] Average Is Over

[D] Recession Is Bad


Text 1

The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next
music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the
sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response
has been favorable, to say the least. “Hooray! At last!” wrote Anthony
Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic.

One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is
that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated
Gilbert‘s appointment in the Times, calls him “an unpretentious musician with no
air of the formidable conductor about him.” As a description of the next music
director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav
Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times
readers as faint praise.

For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a
good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting
compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or
anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go
to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music
from iTunes.

Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live
performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the
art-loving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera
houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the
recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century.
There recordings are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in
artistic quality than today‘s live performances; moreover, they can be
“consumed” at a time and place of the listener’s choosing. The widespread
availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the
institution of the traditional classical concert.

One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new
music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert‘s own interest in new music
has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as
a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into “a markedly different,
more vibrant organization.” But what will be the nature of that difference?
Merely expanding the orchestra’s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilbert and
the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between
America‘s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract.

21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert‘s appointment has

[A]incurred criticism.

[B]raised suspicion.

[C]received acclaim.

[D]aroused curiosity.

22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is





23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers

[A]ignore the expenses of live performances.

[B]reject most kinds of recorded performances.

[C]exaggerate the variety of live performances.

[D]overestimate the value of live performances.

24. According to the text, which of the following is true of

[A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality.

[B]They are easily accessible to the general public.

[C]They help improve the quality of music.

[D]They have only covered masterpieces.

25. Regarding Gilbert‘s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author







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