考研阅读理解真题英语一

考研阅读理解真题英语一1:When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up.

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考研阅读理解真题英语一

考研阅读理解真题英语一1

Text 2

When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his
explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the
usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving “to pursue my
goal of running a company.” Broadcasting his ambition was “very much my
decision,” McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with
the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman
on September 29.

McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on
what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the
outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn‘t alone. In recent weeks the
No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they
were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response
to shareholder pressure, executives who don’t get the nod also may wish to move
on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of
letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations.

As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be
more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover
was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had,
according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will
abound for aspiring leaders.

The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is
unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule
that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says
Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:“I can‘t think of a single search I’ve
done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.”

Those who jumped without a job haven‘t always landed in top positions
quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted
to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based
commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to
be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years
later.

Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The
financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a
bad one. “The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay where you are, but that’s
been fundamentally inverted,” says one headhunter. “The people who‘ve been hurt
the worst are those who’ve stayed too long.”

26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as
being

[A]arrogant.

[B]frank.

[C]self-centered.

[D]impulsive.

27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred
by

[A]their expectation of better financial status.

[B]their need to reflect on their private life.

[C]their strained relations with the boards.

[D]their pursuit of new career goals.

28. The word “poached” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means

[A]approved of.

[B]attended to.

[C]hunted for.

[D]guarded against.

29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A]top performers used to cling to their posts.

[B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated.

[C]top performers care more about reputations.

[D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules.

30. Which of the following is the best title for the text?

[A]CEOs: Where to Go?

[B]CEOs: All the Way Up?

[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net

[D]The Only Way Out for Top Performers

考研阅读理解真题英语一2

TEXT 2

Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme
Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone
without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.

California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling,
particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search
through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the
state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing
technologies.

The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s advice.
Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice
can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.

They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that exploring
the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is
similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The court has ruled that police
don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or
pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one’s smartphone is
more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee’s
reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of
recent correspondence. The development of “cloud computing.” meanwhile, has made
that exploration so much the easier.

But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole. New,
disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution’s
protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and
accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment
of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had
to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then;
they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information
now.

26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is
legitimate to

[A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant.

[B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized.

[C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.

[D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.

27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

[A] tolerance.

[B] indifference.

[C] disapproval.

[D] cautiousness.

28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is comparable
to

[A] getting into one’s residence.

[B] handing one’s historical records.

[C] scanning one’s correspondences.

[D] going through one’s wallet.

29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

[A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.

[B] the court is giving police less room for action.

[C] phones are used to store sensitive information.

[D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected.

30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.

(B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.

(C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution.

(D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.

考研阅读理解真题英语一3

Text 2

A new survey by Harvard University finds more than two-thirds of young
Americans disapprove of President Trump’s use of Twitter. The implication is
that Millennials prefer news from the White House to be filtered through other
source, Not a president’s social media platform.

Most Americans rely on social media to check daily headlines. Yet as
distrust has risen toward all media, people may be starting to beef up their
media literacy skills. Such a trend is badly needed. During the 2016
presidential campaign, nearly a quarter of web content shared by Twitter users
in the politically critical state of Michigan was fake news, according to the
University of Oxford. And a survey conducted for BuzzFeed News found 44 percent
of Facebook users rarely or never trust news from the media giant.

Young people who are digital natives are indeed becoming more skillful at
separating fact from fiction in cyberspace. A Knight Foundation focus-group
survey of young people between ages 14and24 found they use “distributed trust”
to verify stories. They cross-check sources and prefer news from different
perspectives—especially those that are open about any bias. “Many young people
assume a great deal of personal responsibility for educating themselves and
actively seeking out opposing viewpoints,” the survey concluded.

Such active research can have another effect. A 2014 survey conducted in
Australia, Britain, and the United States by the University of Wisconsin-Madison
found that young people’s reliance on social media led to greater political
engagement.

Social media allows users to experience news events more intimately and
immediately while also permitting them to re-share news as a projection of their
values and interests. This forces users to be more conscious of their role in
passing along information. A survey by Barna research group found the top reason
given by Americans for the fake news phenomenon is “reader error,” more so than
made-up stories or factual mistakes in reporting. About a third say the problem
of fake news lies in “misinterpretation or exaggeration of actual news” via
social media. In other words, the choice to share news on social media may be
the heart of the issue. “This indicates there is a real personal responsibility
in counteracting this problem,” says Roxanne Stone, editor in chief at Barna
Group.

So when young people are critical of an over-tweeting president, they
reveal a mental discipline in thinking skills – and in their choices on when to
share on social media.

26. According to the Paragraphs 1 and 2, many young Americans cast doubts
on

[A] the justification of the news-filtering practice.

[B] people’s preference for social media platforms.

[C] the administrations ability to handle information.

[D] social media was a reliable source of news.

27. The phrase “beer up”(Line 2, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to

[A] sharpen

[B] define

[C] boast

[D] share

28. According to the knight foundation survey, young people

[A] tend to voice their opinions in cyberspace.

[B] verify news by referring to diverse resources.

[C] have s strong sense of responsibility.

[D] like to exchange views on “distributed trust”

29. The Barna survey found that a main cause for the fake news problem
is

[A] readers outdated values.

[B] journalists’ biased reporting

[C] readers’ misinterpretation

[D] journalists’ made-up stories.

30. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] A Rise in Critical Skills for Sharing News Online

[B] A Counteraction Against the Over-tweeting Trend

[C] The Accumulation of Mutual Trust on Social Media.

[D] The Platforms for Projection of Personal Interests.

考研阅读理解真题英语一4

Text 2

All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of
any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are
few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.

During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in
America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full
of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law
graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of
nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.

There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal
education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a
four-year undergraduate degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the
American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This
leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of
undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely
hard.

Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible
ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern
the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to
allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students
sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a
stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be
allowed to do so.Students who do not need the extra training could cut their
debt mountain by a third.The other reason why costs are so high is the
restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the
District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This
keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within
the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping
outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money
rather than serve clients ethically.

In fact,allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs
and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology
and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency.
After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started
liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.

26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to

[A]the growing demand from clients.

[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.

[C]the prospect of working in big firms.

[D]the attraction of financial rewards.

答案:D。该题是因果细节题,考察细节。首先,根据段落定位原则模糊定位,定位到前几段。其次,再精确定位,题干中有关键词“students”“law”“profession”,回到原文寻找相关信息。第一段未发现相关信息,然后到第二段看到“The
best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile
into law
schools.”与题干有重合之处,选项D是该句的同义替换。A、B、C三个选项根据原文个别词汇“clients”“inflation”“big-firm”等进行干扰。注意,第一段的But是个假转折词,并非答案处。

27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most
American states?

[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.

[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.

[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.

[D]Receiving training by professional associations.

答案:C。该题是细节题,考察细节。首先根据段落定位原则定位到第三段。其次,根据题干关键词“the costs of legal
education”精确定位到第三段第二句话“One is the excessive costs of a legal
education.”问题是“which of the following adds to the costs of legal
education”,因此定位句的下一句就是答案,即“There is just one path for a lawyer in most American
states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a
three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools accredited by the American Bar
Association and an expensive preparation for the bar
exam.”分析选项可知,选项C恰当概况了该句子的涵义。A选项利用三段末尾的“This leaves today’s average law-school
graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate
debts.”进行干扰。B选项无中生有。D选项根据四段最后一句出现的“training”个别词汇进行干扰。

28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from

[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.

[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.

[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.

[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.

答案:B。该题是原因细节题,问来源。首先段落定位原则定位到第四段。其次,根据题干关键词“the reform of the legal
system”定位到第二句“Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the
state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to
implement them.”选项B即为该句的同义替换。

29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly
because it

[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.

[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.

[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.

[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.

答案:A。该题为因果细节题,问原因。根据段落定位原则定位至倒数第二段。其次,题干中出现“the guild-like ownership
structure”,精确定位到第二句“Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own
any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation
slow.”此外,在该段最后一句提到“…keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from
the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.”从而可以得出答案选A。

30.In this text, the author mainly discusses

[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.

[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.

[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.

[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.

答案:C。该题为文章主旨题,考察文章中心。该篇文章属于问题解决型文章,前5段均在说美国法律职业存在的问题,最后一段提出了解决措施“allowing
non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services
to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ
professional managers to focus on improving firms’
efficiency.”。因此,该篇属于问题解决型文章,选C。其他几个选项均为文中的个别细节,以偏概全。

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