考研英语一阅读历年真题2：The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process,editor-in-chief Marcia McNott announced today.
The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid
for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media – such as television commercials
and print advertisements – still play a major role， companies today can exploit
many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create
“owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers
registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of
factors beyond conventional paid media.
Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own
products. For earned media ， such marketers act as the initiator for users‘
responses. But in some cases， one marketer’s owned media become another
marketer‘s paid media – for instance， when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space
on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so
strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within
that environment. This trend ，which we believe is still in its infancy，
effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and
hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson， for example， has
created BabyCenter， a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and
even competitive products. Besides generating income， the presence of other
marketers makes the site seem objective， gives companies opportunities to learn
valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing， and may
help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.
The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with
more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that
passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker， more visible， and
much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media：
an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers， other stakeholders， or
activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of
social networks， for instance， are learning that they can hijack media to apply
pressure on the businesses that originally created them.
If that happens， passionate consumers would try to persuade others to
boycott products， putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such
a case， the company‘s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful， and
the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor， for example， alleviated some of
the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and
well-orchestrated social-media response campaign， which included efforts to
engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site
31.Consumers may create “earned” media when they are
[A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites.
[B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them.
[C] eager to help their friends promote quality products.
[D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products.
32. According to Paragraph 2，sold media feature
[A] a safe business environment.
[B] random competition.
[C] strong user traffic.
[D] flexibility in organization.
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media
[A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers.
[B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing.
[C] may be responsible for fiercer competition.
[D] deserve all the negative comments about them.
34. Toyota Motor‘s experience is cited as an example of
[A] responding effectively to hijacked media.
[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.
[C] cooperating with supportive consumers.
[D] taking advantage of hijacked media.
35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ?
[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.
[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.
[C] Dominance of hijacked media.
[D] Popularity of owned media.
The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process,
editor-in-chief Marcia McNott announced today. The Follows similar efforts from
other journals, after widespread concern that Mistakes in data analysis are
contributing to the Published research findings.
“Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our
journal,”writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical
Association, the Journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of
reviewing Manuscript will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the Journal’s
editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer The
SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these
Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt
said,”The creation of the’statistics board’was motivated by concerns broadly
with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and
is part of Science’s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research
Giovanni Parmigiani，a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public
Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to “play
primarily on advisory role.” He agreed to join because he “found the foresight
behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a
lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science
itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want
to model their approach after Science.”
John Ioannidis, a physician who studies research methodology, says that the
policy is “a most welcome step forward”and “long overdue,””Most journals are
weak in statistical review，and this damages the quality of what they publish. I
think that, for the majority of scientific papers nowadays, statistical review
is more essential than expert review,”he says. But he noted that biomedical
journals such as Annals of Internal Medicine, the Journal of the American
Medical Association and The Lancet pay strong attention to statistical
Professional scientists are expected to know how to analyze data, but
statistical errors are alarmingly common in published research，according to
David Vaux，a cell biologist. Researchers should improve their standards, he
wrote in 2012，but journals should also take a tougher line，”engaging reviewers
who are statistically literate and editors who can verify the process.”Vaux says
that Science’s idea to pass some papers to statisticians “has some merit，but a
weakness is that it relies on the board of reviewing editors to identify’the
papers that need scrutiny’in the first place.”
31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that
[A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process.
[B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks.
[C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.
[D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects.
32. The phrase “flagged up “(Para.2)is the closest in meaning to
33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE
[A]pose a threat to all its peers
[B]meet with strong opposition
[C]increase Science’s circulation.
[D]set an example for other journals
34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now
A. adds to researchers’ worklosd.
B. diminishes the role of reviewers.
C. has room for further improvement.
D. is to fail in the foreseeable future.
35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?
A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers
B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect
C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks
D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science
Any fair-minded assessment of the dangers of the deal between Britain’s
National Health Service (NHS) and DeepMind must start by acknowledging that both
sides mean well. DeepMind is one of the leading artificial intelligence (AI)
companies in the world. The potential of this work applied to healthcare is very
great, but it could also lead to further concentration of power in the tech
giants. It Is against that background that the information commissioner,
Elizabeth Denham, has issued her damning verdict against the Royal Free hospital
trust under the NHS, which handed over to DeepMind the records of 1.6 million
patients In 2015 on the basis of a vague agreement which took far too little
account of the patients’ rights and their expectations of privacy.
DeepMind has almost apologized. The NHS trust has mended its ways. Further
arrangements- and there may be many-between the NHS and DeepMind will be
carefully scrutinised to ensure that all necessary permissions have been asked
of patients and all unnecessary data has been cleaned. There are lessons about
informed patient consent to learn. But privacy is not the only angle in this
case and not even the most important. Ms Denham chose to concentrate the blame
on the NHS trust, since under existing law it “controlled” the data and DeepMind
merely “processed” it. But this distinction misses the point that it is
processing and aggregation, not the mere possession of bits, that gives the data
The great question is who should benefit from the analysis of all the data
that our lives now generate. Privacy law builds on the concept of damage to an
individual from identifiable knowledge about them. That misses the way the
surveillance economy works. The data of an individual there gains its value only
when it is compared with the data of countless millions more.
The use of privacy law to curb the tech giants in this instance feels
slightly maladapted. This practice does not address the real worry. It is not
enough to say that the algorithms DeepMind develops will benefit patients and
save lives. What matters is that they will belong to a private monopoly which
developed them using public resources. If software promises to save lives on the
scale that dugs now can, big data may be expected to behave as a big pharm has
done. We are still at the beginning of this revolution and small choices now may
turn out to have gigantic consequences later. A long struggle will be needed to
avoid a future of digital feudalism. Ms Denham’s report is a welcome start.
31.Wha is true of the agreement between the NHS and DeepMind ?
[A] It caused conflicts among tech giants.
[B] It failed to pay due attention to patient’s rights.
[C] It fell short of the latter’s expectations
[D] It put both sides into a dangerous situation.
32. The NHS trust responded to Denham’s verdict with
[A] empty promises.
[B] tough resistance.
[C] necessary adjustments.
[D] sincere apologies.
33.The author argues in Paragraph 2 that
[A] privacy protection must be secured at all costs.
[B] leaking patients’ data is worse than selling it.
[C] making profits from patients’ data is illegal.
[D] the value of data comes from the processing of it
34.According to the last paragraph, the real worry arising from this deal
[A] the vicious rivalry among big pharmas.
[B] the ineffective enforcement of privacy law.
[C] the uncontrolled use of new software.
[D] the monopoly of big data by tech giants.
35.The author’s attitude toward the application of AI to healthcare is
The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting
experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award in
March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in
Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the
Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are
funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs.
These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want
to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists
quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and
these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels,
The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say
scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led
research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do
not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone
The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism.Some want
to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have
made their careers in research.
As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about
how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in
Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the
life sciences include.But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per
prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the
collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the
inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery
of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course,themselves set up by a very rich
individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather
than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things
seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were
offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come
to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the
mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’
money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude
31.The Fundamental Physical Prize is seen as
[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’s wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prize.
[C]an example of bankers’ investment.
[D]a handsome reward for researchers.
32.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means
[A]the profit-oriented scientists.
[B]the founders of the new award.
[C]the achievement-based system.
答案：B 为细节题。根据题干中的critics定位到第三段，可知第二段没有出题，从第三段第二句可以得出本道题的正确选项，who have made
their careers in research即为B选项中的The founders。
33.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]controversies over the recipients’ status.
[B]the joint effort of modern researchers.
[C]legitimate concerns over the new prize.
[D]the demonstration of research findings.
答案： D 为细节题。本道题如果从题干中看更像是例证题，但题目中说道the case
involves即问例子本身，所以为一道细节题。我们在第四段倒数第三句中找到了Higgs boson，定位到本句可以得知nature of modern
research—as well as demonstrated by……即为本道题正确答案。
34.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel
[A]Their endurance has done justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.
[C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them.
35.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]acceptable despite the criticism.
[B]harmful to the culture of research.
[C]subject to undesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of public attention.